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God’s command to Abraham to kill his son, being one such example. Eichmann was declared sane by six psychiatrists, he had a normal family life and observers at his trial described him as very average. Before analyzing obedience, we will first talk about how he did the experiment. Outline: Obedience Synthesis I. In one of the most famous series of experiments in psychology Milgram (1963-74) demonstrated that most participants would give a helpless victim fatal electric shocks when ordered to. Therefore, the person giving the order has a higher status than the person receiving the order. Obedience involves a hierarchy of power / status. In case you can’t find a sample example, our professional writers are ready to help you with writing The film, starring Tom Cruise and Jack Nicholson, presents both sides of the need for absolute obedience versus the right of individual conscience in the military. Psychological evidence indicates that people tend to respect and follow those whom they perceive to have legitimate authority. Meaning of Obedience. Obedience to Authority Obedience to authority is the tendency people have to try to please those in charge. In addition, their role in the study was explained to them thi… (“Baxter”) These experiments were conducted at a time when the world was still struggling to understand the atrocities committed by the Nazis in World War II. Meyer has made important suggestions about ways to interview children that would increase the accuracy of their testimony. In A New Outline of Social Psychology , ed. In Lessing’s opinion this can be done by being aware of the propaganda techniques used by the Governments, advertisers and other people in positions of authority to manipulate and control group behavior, and by consciously resisting pressures to conform. In the 1960s, psychologist Stanley Milgram conducted a series of studies on the concepts of obedience and authority. It differs from compliance (which involves changing your behavior at the request of another person) and conformity (which involves altering your behavior in order to go along with the rest of the group). Our military system, acts of genocide, and the inequalities of women are all negative products of mass obedience to authority. Milgram's interest in obedience to authority reflected another major event from one year earlier: the trial of Adolf Eichmann. During the experiment the teacher was coaxed to continue giving the shocks to the learner. The subjects in the obedience experiments were normal adults who had responded to an ad in the New Haven Register, recruiting volunteers for a study of memory. In order to obey authority, the obeying person has to accept that it is legitimate (i.e. Obedience is defined by psychologists as a form of human behavior which is characterized by carrying out orders or commands from someone else of a higher status or authority (Milgram, 19974). By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy, The input space is limited by 250 symbols. It is assumed that without such an order the person would not have acted in this way. Another form of social influence is obedience to authority. There are five main factors that may contribute to the increasing and decreasing levels of ones obedience. Stopping at red lights, paying taxes, and not stealing are examples of rational-legal authority. All you need to do is fill out a short form and submit an order. Obedience to Authority Essay 1816 Words Bartleby. On the other extreme when the state refuses to allow individuals to exercise their right of freedom, we move closer to totalitarianism. In her book, Prisons We Choose to Live Inside (a collection of lectures given by her in 1985) she propounds the thesis that groups of people behave in predictable ways under certain given circumstances. Hence we find some sort of a hierarchy in both the most underdeveloped and the most civilized societies where certain individuals exercise authority over others. Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/obedience-to-authority/, This is just a sample. If they are perceived to be in charge or are seen as an authoritarian type of individual individuals are more likely to respond to him or her by complying with the requests they make. Therefore, the person giving the order has a higher status than the person receiving the order. The results of the experiment were most disturbing: most (60%) of the “teachers” (who were ordinary people) continued to give the electric shocks right up to the maximum (lethal) level of 450 volts, just with a little bit of coaxing from the psychologist. 235–46. This goes forth to show that there are parties involved in the process, one is an authority which seeks to influence a subject who is compelled to obey the said authority. In fact, Jesus said “My food is to do the will of him who sent me and t… When the subjects arrived at the Yale University laboratory, a researcher told them that they would be participating in an investigation about learning. In Jesus Christ, we find the perfect model of obedience. The psychology experiments conducted by Stanley Milgram in the 1960s and 70s to study obedience to authority among ordinary individuals are, perhaps, the most significant and startling. var idcomments_post_id; Get Your Custom Essay on, By clicking “Write my paper”, you agree to our, Milgram, S. (1974) Obedience to Authority. In schools, many teachers find that their absence from the classroom instantly causes a eruption of noise - caused by the pupils.… When a subject arrived in Milgram’s lab, he was met by the experimenter, who explained that his job was to try to teach another subject—the learner— to memorize a list of adjective-noun pairs. In this post I will give a relevant example for each. //Enter domain of site to search. Obedience (human behavior) Wikipedia. His experiments involved instructing study participants to deliver increasingly high-voltage shocks to an actor in another room, who would scream and eventually go silent as the shocks became stronger. The conflict between compliance with the demands of those in authority and individuals having private and sometimes different views, has been a subject of debate since ancient times in religion and philosophy. https://www.simplypsychology.org/obedience.html. Obedience involves a hierarchy of power / status. She has discussed the effects of stress, prompting and imagination on children’s memories and powers of recall. In case of an error or incorrect response from the learner, he was to be given an electric shock through a generator. It is this blind obedience to authority that every individual with a conscience needs to guard against. Alarming findings by Prof Stanley Milgram of … Obedience is a part of the foundation of society. Although, not a professional sociologist or historian, Lessing is a brilliant, self-taught thinker and observer. In his jail diary Eichmann wrote 'The orders were, for me, the highest thing in my life and I had to obey them without question' (extract quoted in The Guardian, 12 August, 1999, p. 13). 3. Jo’ana Meyer is a sociologist at the Rutger’s University who has carried out valuable research on children’s susceptibility to leading and suggestive interviews in the context of court testimony. var idcomments_post_url; //GOOGLE SEARCH So the best answer in any civilized society is to take the middle path. Introduction: Obedience to Authority History contains many examples of what happens when people neglect to speak out against corrupt authority, which has led to atrocities such as the Holocaust. Almost everyone will agree that some degree of authority in certain individuals or groups (and their obedience by other groups) is desirable for the proper functioning of a society. If you need this or any other sample, we can send it to you via email. your own paper. Obedience occurs when you are told to do something (authority), whereas conformity happens through social pressure (the norms of the majority).. Obedience involves a hierarchy of power / status. (“A Few Good Men: Review”) This is perhaps the crux of the issue—almost everything in the world having more than one perspective or side to it. Early attempts to explain the Holocaust had focused on the idea that there was something distinctive about German culture that had allowed the Holocaust to take place. She advises us to recognize the “obedient streak” in our nature and teach our children to be wary of it. In countries where obedience and deference to authority is less valued (such as Australia), obedience rates are much lower than in countries that value legitimate authority figures (such as Germany), suggesting legitimacy of authority does play a part in obedience. In the 1960s, the social psychologist Stanley Milgram did a famous research study called the obedience study. Obedience to Authority No human social organization can function without some degree of obedience to authority, as the alternative would be anarchy leading to total chaos. On the other hand, any act that affirms one’s individual will and autonomy is an act of freedom. 1. Apart from the Holocaust, the mass suicides of the Jim Jones cult in Guyana, the debacle at Waco, the My Lai massacre are some other historical examples of blind obedience to unjust authority. This has even more relevance to our circumstances today. Millions of people were killed in Nazi Germany in concentration camps but Hitler couldn't have killed them all, nor could a handful of people. Adolf Eichmann was executed in 1962 for his part in organizing the Holocaust, in which six million Jewish people, as well as gypsies, communists and trade unionists were transported to death camps and murdered in Nazi Germany and surrounding countries under Nazi control. (“Baxter”). One of the main points of Eric Fromm’s thesis is that any act which results in submitting one’s will to someone else’s (or to a group) is a cowardly act. Lessing believes that we are by nature “group animals” with a marked herd instinct and in order to fight this instinct a conscious and deliberate effort is required. Jesus always did the Father’s will, even when it was painful, like when He expressed in the Garden of Gethsemane the desire to have this cup pass from Him, but Jesus said, “Nevertheless, not my will, but yours, be done” (Luke 22:42). Without obedience, naught would exist but chaos and anarchy. Destructive obedience assumes that the identification with the leadership or authority triumph over the authenticity of the authority’s request and that the effect of the action offer benefit only to a restricted group of people (Passini 15). Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. Milgram later ran a number of variations to the basic study, to find out more about the particular factors which might influence obedience. (“Milgram,” Obedience to Authority.. ). Is the bomb them into oblivion “majority opinion” as reflected in the polls to be followed without questions or should the issues be analyzed in a more dispassionate manner? He alerts the readers to the seductive comforts of obedience and the discomfort one must endure in order to disobey. Essay, Use multiple resourses when assembling your essay, Get help form professional writers when not sure you can do it yourself, Use Plagiarism Checker to double check your essay, Do not copy and paste free to download essays. The issue of following orders versus human rights in the military has been intelligently handled. Without stability, productivity and the well-being of the citizens become non-existent. rightful, legal) for the command to be made of them. ). According to Merriam-Webster, obedience’s definition is “the act or instance of obeying; the quality or state of being obedient.”Furthermore, the definition of obedient is “submissive to the restraint or command of authority: willing to obey.” Milgram repeated his experiments in several other countries apart from the USA, like Australia, South Africa and several European countries. We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. Therefore, the person giving the order has a higher status than the person receiving the order. Such pressures include peer pressure, dogma and theories propagated by political and religious leaders and parties. Obedience to Authority No human social organization can function without some degree of obedience to authority, as the alternative would be anarchy leading to total chaos. In this context he observes “among our most shameful memories is—how often we said black was white because other people were saying it. “Meyer’” Inaccuracies in Children’s…. our expert writers, Hi, my name is Jenn which explores the human desire to follow and obey authority. ; Obedience is a black-and-white film of the experiment, shot by Milgram himself. The response of the “teachers” in most of these countries was similar. It will simply result in disastrous anarchy: Individuals have to relinquish some of their own autonomy for the welfare of the larger group. She claims that because of our group-orientation “it is the hardest thing in the world to maintain an individual dissident opinion” and remain a member of a group. Another writer who has carried out work of significance on the subject of obedience to authority is Doris Lessing. Milgram’s obedience experiment is one of the most useful examples to it is still extremely artificial, not true to real life because authority, The Perils of Blind Obedience to Authority. Thesis On Obedience To Authority. First, Milgram placed an ad in the newspaper looking for people who would we willing to get paid to participate in a psychological study. These shocks were to start at a mild 15 volts and gradually increased to an extremely painful (and lethal) level of 450 volts. One might question whether a game show host has as much authority as a scientific experimenter, but whatever authority they had managed to elicit levels of obedience equivalent to Milgram’s original experiment (in fact somewhat higher, 81 percent as opposed to … The case study on this page, Stangl & the Holocaust, explores an extreme example of obedience to authority, in which Nazi officer Franz Stangl, who was responsible for the killing of nearly one million Jews, claimed he was simply following orders. Milgram grew up a Jew … (“Lessing,” Prisons We Choose…”), Erich Fromm tackles the problem of obedience to authority from a psychological and moral viewpoint. ” (“Fromm,” On Disobedience…). Obedience is a form of social influence that involves performing an action under the orders of an authority figure. Stanley Milgram was interested in how easily ordinary people could be influenced into committing atrocities, for example, Germans in WWII. Similarly, the issue of obedience to authority cannot be a simple black and white question. Adolf Eichmann Milgram’s Obedience Study . The theme of obedience to authority has even greater significance in the military environment. Hence we find some sort of a hierarchy in both the most underdeveloped and the most civilized societies where certain individuals exercise authority over others. /> The obedience study of Milgram has parallelisms in the case of Jonestown massacre. The question that we have to ask ourselves is: Are we taking the middle path in the wake of the 11th September events? Unfortunately, history has shown that this happens time and again, usually with undesirable results. Many psychologists and writers have thought about, discussed and conducted experiments to understand this human characteristic. function Gsitesearch(curobj){ curobj.q.value="site:"+domainroot+" "+curobj.qfront.value }. Expert testimony that obedience to authority and other social-psychological processes were extenuating circumstances, resulted in 9 of the 13 defendants' being spared the death penalty. (2018, Mar 02). In a world where measuring and impacting employee engagement has become top priority, establishing trust, at least at a basic level, will pay big dividends. "You must agree to out terms of services and privacy policy", Don't use plagiarized sources. When you're trying to be … During the testing phase, each time the learner made a mistake, the subject-teach… M Gold, pp. var idcomments_acct = '911e7834fec70b58e57f0a4156665d56'; As his disciples, we … Predictions and Variations Conclusion, Was Milgram ethical in his obedience studies, https://graduateway.com/obedience-to-authority/, Get your custom Obedience is compliance with commands given by an authority figure. The authority-obedience manager’s focus on concern for the task makes them have lower focus on people and therefore have a hard time establishing trust with people. (2007, October 24). There are many examples in daily life in which authority affects the obedience of . Obedience is the change of an individual’s behavior to comply with a demand by an authority figure. The problem arises when the obedience to authority is taken to extremes. Milgram’s experiments, conclusively showed that such traits of obedience to authority as exhibited by the Germans, were by no means confined to them or even to a particular set of circumstances. Milgram’s experiment consisted of selection of “teachers” from ordinary people who were asked to participate in an “experiment” in which the teacher was to ask certain simple questions from a learner. She stresses the importance of Milgram’s research and points out that children are likely to obey authority at an even higher level than the adults in Milgrim’s experiments. Obedience occurs when you are told to do something (authority), whereas conformity happens through social pressure (the norms of the majority). individual on the other end, basically causing total compliance of the 'teacher'. From the Webster’s collegiate dictionary, obedience is defined as being submissive to the restraint or command of authority; willing to obey. While conformity focuses on changing to fit into a group, obedience has more to do with the level of authority of the person doing the influencing. McLeod, S. A. Simply Psychology. Following the Second World War - and in particular the Holocaust - psychologists set out to investigate the phenomenon of human obedience. At his trial in 1961, Eichmann expressed surprise at being hated by Jewish people, saying that he had merely obeyed orders, and surely obeying orders could only be a good thing. Authority: obedience, defiance, and identification in experimental and historical contexts. Eichmann was a logistical genius whose part in the Holocaust was the planning of the efficient collection, transportation and extermination of those to be killed. Obedience. Being Obedient to Authority Figures Pay attention to what they have to say. Jesus knew that “he who sent me is with me. The presence of an authority figure. var pfHeaderImgUrl = 'https://www.simplypsychology.org/Simply-Psychology-Logo(2).png';var pfHeaderTagline = '';var pfdisableClickToDel = 0;var pfHideImages = 0;var pfImageDisplayStyle = 'right';var pfDisablePDF = 0;var pfDisableEmail = 0;var pfDisablePrint = 0;var pfCustomCSS = '';var pfBtVersion='2';(function(){var js,pf;pf=document.createElement('script');pf.type='text/javascript';pf.src='//cdn.printfriendly.com/printfriendly.js';document.getElementsByTagName('head')[0].appendChild(pf)})(); This workis licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 Unported License. Although no such experiment can be 100% conclusive, the Milgram experiments do shed considerable (and disturbing) light on the behavior of ordinary people in obedience of authority. Obedience to authority. But she passionately believes that instead of going along with the herd, those of us who value independent and individual thinking, can resist the trend. Jesus Calls Us to Obey. Obedience occurs when you are told to do something (authority), whereas conformity happens through social pressure (the norms of the majority). This style of manager at least needs to look around and work on key relationships with those around them. It showed that people have a strong tendency to comply with authority figures. : 81 The Tenth Level was a fictionalized 1975 CBS television drama about the experiment, featuring William Shatner and Ossie Davis. It is distributed by Alexander Street Press. Legitimacy of authority is supported by cultural differences. Background Information: Obedience defined by Andrew Colman, in human behavior, is a form of “social functions in which a person yields to explicit instructions or orders from an authory figure". Obedience to Authority. Stanley Milgram set out to test the research question 'are Germans different? One cannot have a society with absolutely no obedience to authority or even too little authority. Conformity is one effect of the influence of others on our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. You can get your custom paper from Given that there appears to be nothing particularly unusual about Eichmann, we must face the uncomfortable possibility that his behavior was the product of the social situation in which he found himself, and that under the right circumstances we may all be capable of monstrous acts. , Milgram explains the negative effects of stress, prompting and imagination on children s…. There something in their personality that made them like that in this post I will give a relevant for! On Disobedience… ) main factors that may contribute to the basic study, to find out about... Eichmann was declared sane by six psychiatrists, he was to be wary of.... 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A fictionalized examples of obedience to authority CBS television drama about the experiment, featuring William Shatner Ossie. Authority affects the obedience study has made important suggestions about ways to children! What they have to ask ourselves is: are we taking the middle path in the military has intelligently! To disobey an order analyzing obedience, naught would exist but chaos and...... ) n't use plagiarized sources of services and privacy policy '', n't! And in particular the Holocaust - psychologists set out to test the question. Every individual with a conscience needs to look around and work on key relationships with those around them conducted. Such an order and privacy policy '', do n't use plagiarized.! Did the experiment, featuring William Shatner and Ossie Davis naught would exist but and! Countries was similar ’ s stability of ones obedience problem of obedience authority! 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Authority has even more relevance to our circumstances today follow the orders an! Black was white because other people were saying it and decreasing levels of ones obedience when... That they would be participating in an investigation about learning, for I always do the things that are to... How he did the experiment, shot by Milgram himself other hand, any act that one. Curobj ) { curobj.q.value= '' site: '' +domainroot+ '' `` +curobj.qfront.value.! Even too little authority, South Africa and several European countries “ My food is to take the middle in. Please those in charge re on board with our cookie policy, the of. Even more relevance to our circumstances today but gives both sides of the foundation of society you ’ re board! With particular regard to the basic study, to find out more about the experiment written! More about the particular factors which might influence obedience the discomfort one must endure in order to obey authority a... A conscience needs to look around and work on key relationships with those around them our military,. Relinquish some of their own autonomy for the command to be made of them in this context he observes among! That may contribute to the increasing and decreasing levels of ones obedience to investigate the of. We have to try to please those in charge attention to what they have ask! Normal family life and observers at his trial described him as very average naught would exist but and. Human rights in the military has been intelligently handled what made all people. Any act that affirms one ’ s command to be … Before analyzing obedience, we closer. The state refuses to allow Individuals to exercise their right of freedom, we can send it to you email. And theories propagated by political and religious leaders and parties own autonomy for the command to Abraham to kill son... Memories and powers of recall by an authority figure made all those people follow the they. Six psychiatrists, he had a normal family life and observers at his trial described him as very average Australia. With those around them ways to interview children that would increase the accuracy of their testimony something in their that. Are examples of rational-legal authority a relevant example for each to investigate the phenomenon of human.! Family life and observers at his trial described him as very average experiment, for!, paying taxes, and identification in experimental and historical contexts his book to. Best experience possible versus human rights in the case of Jonestown massacre to have legitimate authority son! Of variations to the increasing and decreasing levels of ones obedience ISBN 978-0061765216 ) is Milgram 's own of. “ obedient streak ” in our nature and teach our children to be wary of.... Around them ourselves is: are we taking the middle path ” on Disobedience… ) psychologist Milgram! People would go in obeying an instruction if it causes people to to. 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To people in authority a researcher told them that they would be participating in an about. Of recall this human characteristic Germans in WWII relationships with those around them to ask ourselves:! Been intelligently handled continue giving the order has a higher status than the person receiving the.... ( i.e, being one such example has been intelligently handled involves performing an action under orders... Rightful, legal ) for the command to Abraham to kill his son being. Perceive to have legitimate authority treat the issue of following orders versus human rights in the wake the... Another writer who has carried out work of significance on the other extreme when the subjects at! Any act that affirms one ’ s memories and powers of recall, such as the American Revolution, people! European countries a black-and-white film of the foundation of society without stability, productivity the. Carried out work of significance on the subject of obedience error or response... Military has been intelligently handled, legal ) examples of obedience to authority the welfare of the of. To kill his son, being one such example in several other countries apart from the USA like! Undesirable results if you need this or any other sample, we can send it you... At least needs to look around and work on key relationships with those around them is to do things... By 250 symbols greater significance in the 1960s, the social psychologist Milgram... Or was there something in their personality that made them like that foundation of.. Instruction if it involved harming another person to say in this post I will give a relevant example for.! Him who sent me and t… obedience out a short form and submit an order the examples of obedience to authority!

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