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doi:10.1007/s11157-005-1246-z, Arellano-Cárdenas S, López-Cortez S, Cornejo-Mazón M, Mares-Gutiérrez JC (2013) Study of malachite green adsorption by organically modified clay using a batch method. J Appl Polym Sci 127:2475–2482. Bioresour Technol 85:205–206. Kinetic studies showed the best fitness of pseudo-second-order model on experimental data. When the fabric is dry, record the dye color produced by each direct dye on each type of fiber. In addition, bagasse fly ash generated in the sugar industry does not contain large amounts of toxic metals and hence, Mall et al. doi:10.1007/s10661-011-1914-0, Sharma YC (2011) Adsorption characteristics of a low-cost activated carbon for the reclamation of colored effluents containing malachite green. 2011); etc. Zeolite structures are commonly described in terms of the size, geometry and connectivity of the pore space. The results revealed that the adsorption process followed both Langmuir and Redlich–Peterson isotherms, the adsorption capacity was 483.63 mg/g. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2012.10.086, Zhou Y, Min Y, Qiao H et al (2015) Improved removal of malachite green from aqueous solution using chemically modified cellulose by anhydride. doi:10.1021/jp0540914, Yu J, Chi R, He Z, Qi Y (2011) Adsorption performances of cationic dyes from aqueous solution on pyromellitic dianhydride modified sugarcane bagasse. doi:10.1007/s11783-010-0006-7, Kant S, Pathania D, Singh P et al (2014) Removal of malachite green and methylene blue by Fe0.01Ni0.01Zn0.98O/polyacrylamide nanocomposite using coupled adsorption and photocatalysis. 2007); Pine sawdust (Akmil-Başar et al. Basic Green 4 (malachite green) from aqueous solutions by adsorption using cyclodextrin-based adsorbent: kinetic and equilibrium studies. Therefore, in this review article we tried to congregate the available information on various adsorbents used for the removal of MG, a cationic dye, from water and wastewater. Aitcheson et al. Water Air Soil Pollut 213:251–273. Abd-El-Kareem MS, Taha HM (2012) Decolorization of malachite green and methylene blue by two microalgal species. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.11.055, Beak MH, Ijagbemi CO, Kim DS (2009) Treatment of malachite green-containing wastewater using poultry feathers as adsorbent. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.02.001, Dadhaniya PV, Patel MP, Patel RG (2006) Swelling and dye adsorption study of novel superswelling [acrylamide/N-vinylpyrrolidone/3(2-hydroxyethyl carbamoyl) acrylic acid] hydrogels. doi:10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.04.042, Sartape AS, Mandhare AM, Jadhav VV et al (2015) Removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution with adsorption technique using Limonia acidissima (wood apple) shell as low cost adsorbent. Acid dyes are highly water soluble anionic dyes which contain one or more sulfonic groups/substituents and other acidic groups. Enzyme Microb Technol 39:848–853. Repeat steps 4–8 with new test strips in the malachite green and methyl orange dye baths. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2006.06.009, Mall ID, Srivastava VC, Agarwal NK, Mishra IM (2005) Adsorptive removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution by bagasse fly ash and activated carbon-kinetic study and equilibrium isotherm analyses. Part of Springer Nature. Arab J Chem. The optimum process variables were found to be pH > 3.2, 180 min of contact time and 0.25 g/250 mL of adsorbent dosage. The monolayer adsorption capacity obtained was 285.70 mg/g which was 10 times higher than the chitin hydrogels (26.88 mg/g). volume 7, pages3407–3445(2017)Cite this article. J Environ Sci Eng 46:293–302, Sivashankar R, Sathya AB, Vasantharaj K, Sivasubramanian V (2014) Magnetic composite an environmental super adsorbent for dye sequestration—a review. Therefore, the sorption of MG by TU-poly(AN-co-AA) is feasible, and there is no need for external energy [72]. Chem Eng J 260:541–549. The efficacy of montmorillonite clay had been investigated by Tahir et al. Malachite Green Carbinol base Dye content 90 % Synonym: Solvent Green 1 CAS Number 510-13-4. They are small aromatic molecules which contain minimum one nitro group and one or more amino or hydroxy groups. Peat is a porous and complex natural material, widely available and studied as an alternative adsorbent for different pollutants as well as dyes (Raval et al. Water Air Soil Pollut 206:215–223. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2006.05.025, Daneshvar N, Khataee AR, Rasoulifard MH, Pourhassan M (2007b) Biodegradation of dye solution containing malachite green: optimization of effective parameters using Taguchi method. 2010; Liu et al. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.12.006, Özdemir A, Keskin CS (2009) Removal of a binary dye mixture of congo red and malachite green from aqueous solutions using a bentonite adsorbent. doi:10.1023/A:1015610018103, Anastopoulos I, Kyzas GZ (2014) Agricultural peels for dye adsorption: a review of recent literature. RSC Adv 3:5815–5818. However, due to their high production costs, these materials tend to be more expensive than other adsorbents. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol 4:245–273. 0 > 40 kJ/mol) on silica. Bioresour Technol 77:247–255. doi:10.3126/ijls.v9i2.12053, Tavlieva MP, Genieva SD, Georgieva VG, Vlaev LT (2013) Kinetic study of brilliant green adsorption from aqueous solution onto white rice husk ash. doi:10.1002/clen.200900234, Saha P, Chowdhury S, Gupta S, Kumar I (2010b) Insight into adsorption equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of malachite green onto clayey soil of Indian origin. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.10.011, Sayılkan F, Asiltürk M, Tatar P et al (2007b) Preparation of re-usable photocatalytic filter for degradation of malachite green dye under UV and vis-irradiation. Dyes Pigments 72:124–129. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.07.039, Khataee AR, Dehghan G, Zarei M et al (2011a) Neural network modeling of biotreatment of triphenylmethane dye solution by a green macroalgae. Department of Environmental Science, School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad, 380 009, Gujarat, India, Department of Chemistry, School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad, 380 009, Gujarat, India, You can also search for this author in The major advantages of biosorption over conventional treatment methods include, low cost; high efficiency; minimization of chemical or biological sludge; no additional nutrient requirement and possibility of regeneration of biosorbent (Volesky 1990). doi:10.1080/09593330.2014.938124, Chieng HI, Zehra T, Lim LBL et al (2014) Sorption characteristics of peat of Brunei Darussalam IV: equilibrium, thermodynamics and kinetics of adsorption of methylene blue and malachite green dyes from aqueous solution. Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia, Sand LB, Mumpton FA (1978) Natural zeolites: occurrence, properties, and use. Orange peel is discarded in the orange-juice and soft-drink industries all over the world. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.01.057, Sun H, Yang H, Huang W, Zhang S (2015a) Immobilization of laccase in a sponge-like hydrogel for enhanced durability in enzymatic degradation of dye pollutants. 2008; Asiltürk et al. 2014). Kinetic parameters and correlation coefficients of MG onto TU-poly(AN-, Isotherm parameters and correlation coefficients of MG onto TU-poly(AN-, Van’t Hoff plot for MG adsorption onto TU-poly(AN-, Thermodynamic parameters for adsorption of MG onto TU-poly(AN-. J Appl Polym Sci 131:1–9. The sorption of the dye malachite green on kaolin confirmed to linear form of Langmuir adsorption equation. Int J Chem Environ Eng 3:297–302, Adegoke KA, Bello OS (2015) Dye sequestration using agricultural wastes as adsorbents. doi:10.1016/j.molliq.2016.06.074, Sarkar AK, Pal A, Ghorai S et al (2014) Efficient removal of malachite green dye using biodegradable graft copolymer derived from amylopectin and poly(acrylic acid). The adsorption process was well fitted to the Freundlich isotherm and confirmed that adsorption was heterogeneous in nature. Therefore, Li et al. The best-fit adsorption isotherm was achieved with the Langmuir model, indicating that homogeneous adsorption occurred. They are also one of the oldest types of dyes since they have been found in the covering of mummies dating back over 4000 years. doi:10.1515/HF.2007.060, Šafařík I, Šafaříková M, Vrchotová N (1995) Study of sorption of triphenylmethane dyes on a magnetic carrier bearing an immobilized copper phthalocyanine dye. Bioresour Technol 102:805–813. Structure: 11. Process Biochem 47:1723–1748. The removal takes place through a film diffusion mechanism at lower concentrations and by particle diffusion at higher concentrations. J Photochem Photobiol Chem 160:99–104. Mater Sci Eng C 31:1062–1067. (2005) used bagasse fly ash (BFA) as adsorbent for the removal of MG from aqueous solutions. Raval, N.P., Shah, P.U. The optimized contact time and pH were 10 min and 9, respectively. Archetype, London, Chanzu HA, Onyari JM, Shiundu PM (2012) Biosorption of malachite green from aqueous solutions onto polylactide/spent brewery grains films: kinetic and equilibrium studies. A latin word mordant means ‘to bite’. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.11.018, Janoš P, Šmídová V (2005) Effects of surfactants on the adsorptive removal of basic dyes from water using an organomineral sorbent—iron humate. doi:10.1080/09593330902838098, Xu R, Jia M, Zhang Y, Li F (2012) Sorption of malachite green on vinyl-modified mesoporous poly(acrylic acid)/SiO2 composite nanofiber membranes. (2006) defined nanocomposites as materials consisting of at least two phases with one dispersed in another that is called matrix, and thus forms a three dimensional network. They are vat dyes and represent one of the oldest known classes of dyes. J Hazard Mater 169:297–301. The negative values of (−17.06 kJ/mol) affirms quantitatively that the process is exothermic and MG adsorption process was not favoured at higher temperatures [52, 71]. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.11.110, Bai C, Xiao W, Feng D et al (2013) Efficient decolorization of Malachite Green in the Fenton reaction catalyzed by [Fe(III)-salen]Cl complex. It acts as ‘fixing agent’ to improve the color fastness of some acid dyes, because they have the ability to form insoluble colored complexes with metal ions. Water Air Soil Pollut 120:283–294. Because of their easy use, cost effectiveness and wide range of colors these dyes became popular. doi:10.1016/j.apcatb.2007.01.013, Bhagavathi Pushpa T, Vijayaraghavan J, Sardhar Basha SJ et al (2015) Investigation on removal of malachite green using EM based compost as adsorbent. Fiber reactive dyes will form a covalent bond while they react with the cellulosic fiber. Bioresour Technol 94:169–176. J Hazard Mater 136:721–726. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.09.029, Pourjavadi A, Doulabi M, Doroudian M (2014) Adsorption characteristics of malachite green dye onto novel kappa-carrageenan-g-polyacrylic acid/TiO2–NH2 hydrogel nanocomposite. Used at 0.05 ppm, most species can be treated with little if any toxicity problems. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.04.094, Lee Y-C, Kim J-Y, Shin H-J (2013) Removal of malachite green (MG) from aqueous solutions by adsorption, precipitation, and alkaline fading using talc. doi:10.2202/1542-6580.1889, Griffiths J (1976) Colour and constitution of organic molecules. doi:10.1080/01496395.2011.584930, Chowdhury S, Saha PD (2012) Fixed-bed adsorption of malachite green onto binary solid mixture of adsorbents: seashells and eggshells. It has been extensively applied in biomedical and pharmaceutical fields due to its low cost, non-toxicity, biocompatibility, good mechanical strength and chemical stability. South Afr J Chem 66:117–129, Berberidou C, Poulios I, Xekoukoulotakis NP, Mantzavinos D (2007) Sonolytic, photocatalytic and sonophotocatalytic degradation of malachite green in aqueous solutions. 2006); oxyhumolite (Young brown coal) (Janos et al. J Hazard Mater 97:219–243. doi:10.2174/1876397900901010074, Shedbalkar U, Jadhav JP (2011) Detoxification of malachite green and textile industrial effluent by Penicillium ochrochloron. (2011); Microbial decolouration of azo dyes: A review by Solís et al. It exhibits good adsorption capacity for organic dyes and heavy metals because it has a large number of hydroxyl and amine groups. doi:10.1016/j.msec.2011.03.006, Gupta VK, Kumar R, Nayak A et al (2013) Adsorptive removal of dyes from aqueous solution onto carbon nanotubes: a review. Mater Chem Phys 82:107–115. that is … Desalin Water Treat 51:3284–3294. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial assistance provided by the INSPIRE Programme under the Assured Opportunity for Research Careers (AORC) scheme, funded by the Department of Science and Technology (DST) (Sanction Order No. The nano-scale inclusions that are imbedded within matrix of a material are referred as composites (Chen et al. (2013); Adsorptive removal of dyes from aqueous solution onto carbon nanotubes: a review by Gupta et al. History & Uses: First made in 1877, Malachite Green has been used primarily as a dye for fabrics, leather, and paper. Bioresour Technol 98:1176–1182. doi:10.1007/s11274-008-9941-x, Ayed L, Chaieb K, Cheref A, Bakhrouf A (2010) Biodegradation and decolorization of triphenylmethane dyes by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Chemosphere 59:881–886. A number of commercially available activated carbons such as powdered activated carbon (Kumar 2006); coal-based activated carbon (Aitcheson et al. Durian (Durio zibethinus Murray) is the most popular seasonal fruit in Southeast Asia, particularly Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines, and belongs to the family Bombacaceae. doi:10.1007/s11270-009-0097-6, Wang XS, Zhou Y, Jiang Y, Sun C (2008b) The removal of basic dyes from aqueous solutions using agricultural by-products. Malachite Green dye of the triphenyl-methane group is an extensively used dye in the fabric industries that is emitted through textile wastewater. A. Pinto, “Biosorption of food dyes onto Spirulina platensis nanoparticles: equilibrium isotherm and thermodynamic analysis,”, S. K. Ponnusamy, “Effect of temperature on the adsorption of methylene blue dye onto sulfuric acid—treated orange peel,”, N. Ayawei, A. N. Ebelegi, and D. Wankasi, “Modelling and interpretation of adsorption isotherms,”, S. P. D. Monte Blanco, F. B. Scheufele, A. N. Módenes et al., “Kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic phenomenological modeling of reactive dye adsorption onto polymeric adsorbent,”, M. F. Elkady, A. M. Ibrahim, and M. M. A. El-Latif, “Assessment of the adsorption kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamic for the potential removal of reactive red dye using eggshell biocomposite beads,”, M. Erhayem, F. Al-Tohami, R. Mohamed, and K. Ahmida, “Isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic studies for the sorption of mercury(II) onto activated carbon from, A. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2010.07.047, Chowdhury S, Saha P (2010a) Sea shell powder as a new adsorbent to remove Basic Green 4 (malachite green) from aqueous solutions: equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 42:380–386. 2012); Annona squmosa seed (Santhi et al. doi:10.1016/j.colsurfa.2005.03.027, Man LW, Kumar P, Teng TT, Wasewar KL (2012) Design of experiments for malachite green dye removal from wastewater using thermolysis—coagulation–flocculation. doi:10.1039/c4dt00694a, Wang L, Zhang J, Zhao R et al (2010) Adsorption of basic dyes on activated carbon prepared from Polygonum orientale Linn: equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies. It was revealed from the Table 2 that the extensive usage of MG dye has caused several health hazards and hence, proper treatment of effluent containing MG dye is extremely necessary. It is also used as a biological stain. J Environ Sci China 26:1203–1211. Malachite green (MG) is water soluble cationic dye that appears as green crystalline powder and belongs to triphenylmethane category (Raval et al. doi:10.1039/C4RA13402H, Sun X-F, Wang S-G, Liu X-W et al (2008) Biosorption of malachite green from aqueous solutions onto aerobic granules: kinetic and equilibrium studies. Mater Res Bull 43:127–134. doi:10.1080/10934520802597929, Das AK, Saha S, Pal A, Maji SK (2009b) Surfactant-modified alumina: an efficient adsorbent for malachite green removal from water environment. doi:10.1016/j.saa.2013.08.082, Safarik I, Lunackova P, Mosiniewicz-Szablewska E et al (2007) Adsorption of water-soluble organic dyes on ferrofluid-modified sawdust. doi:10.1002/app.37947, Zhang G, Yi L, Deng H, Sun P (2014a) Dyes adsorption using a synthetic carboxymethyl cellulose-acrylic acid adsorbent. J Environ Sci Health Part A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 44:536–542. J Mol Liq 200(Part B):381–389. J Ind Eng Chem 14:726–731. Rev Prog Color Relat Top 11:37–57. Water Environ Res Res Publ Water Environ Fed 85:466–477. Removal of malachite green dye from wastewater by different organic acid-modified natural adsorbent: kinetics, equilibriums, mechanisms, practical application, and disposal of dye-loaded adsorbent. Although these dyes are water soluble anionic dyes, they cannot be classified as acid dyes because the acid groups are not the means of attachment to the fiber. The natural siliceous materials used for MG adsorption were perlite, silica, glass fibers and alunite because of their high abundance, easy availability and low cost. doi:10.1007/s10646-011-0595-3, Eckenrode HM, Jen S-H, Han J et al (2005) Adsorption of a cationic dye molecule on polystyrene microspheres in colloids: effect of surface charge and composition probed by second harmonic generation. 2016a). doi:10.1016/j.colsurfa.2014.11.021, Wang H, Yuan X, Zeng G et al (2014a) Removal of malachite green dye from wastewater by different organic acid-modified natural adsorbent: kinetics, equilibriums, mechanisms, practical application, and disposal of dye-loaded adsorbent. Authors conducted batch adsorption studies to evaluate the effect of various parameters such as pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and initial MG concentration on the removal of MG and concluded that the effective pH was 7.0 for adsorption of MG. Equilibrium reached in about 4 h contact time and optimum ACC and ACL dosages were 20 and 4.0 g/L, respectively. Bioresour Technol 89:121–124. (2015) investigated the use of breadnut (Artocarpus camansi) as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of MG toxic dye. and dimethylaniline in the molecular ratio 1:2 and in the presence of a dehydrating agent. Chemosphere 77:842–847. J Hazard Mater 209–210:218–225. 2006; Daneshvar et al. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 72:1316–1321. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:14810–14853. Malachite green “a cationic dye” and its removal from aqueous solution by adsorption, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-016-0512-2. It takes a long time for the spores to stain due to their density, so time acts as the mordant when performing this differential stain; the slide with the bacterium should be soaked in malachite green for at least 30 minutes and then rinsed off with water which acts as the decolorizer. Toxicol Environ Chem 94:1272–1282. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2010.04.052, Babel S, Kurniawan TA (2003) Low-cost adsorbents for heavy metals uptake from contaminated water: a review. doi:10.1080/01496390902775588, Xing Y, Wang G (2009) Poly(methacrylic acid)-modified sugarcane bagasse for enhanced adsorption of cationic dye. Many treatment technologies have been applied to decolorize MG from aqueous medium, such as biodegradation and decolorization (An et al. (2015) prepared Magnetic β-cyclodextrin-graphene oxide nanocomposites (Fe3O4/β–CD/GO) as an adsorbent for MG dye because graphene oxide have abundant hydrophilic groups on its surface, and thus it has good adsorption capacity still its separation was difficult task from sample solution and hence, to simplify the retrieval procedure, magnetic adsorbent (Fe3O4) has been incorporated with GO. have been extensively studied for the adsorption of MG. Mesoporous carbon was synthesized by Anbia and Ghaffari (2012) for the removal of a cationic dye malachite green (MG) from aqueous solution. doi:10.1002/ep.10564, Chowdhury S, Mishra R, Saha P, Kushwaha P (2011b) Adsorption thermodynamics, kinetics and isosteric heat of adsorption of malachite green onto chemically modified rice husk. It is also used as a biological stain. Environ Technol 36:86–97. Academic Press, London, Griffiths J (1981) Recent developments in the colour and constitution of organic dyes. Appl Water Sci 7, 3407–3445 (2017). doi:10.1016/j.seppur.2004.01.008, Gupta VK, Nayak A (2012) Cadmium removal and recovery from aqueous solutions by novel adsorbents prepared from orange peel and Fe2O3 nanoparticles. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 118:55–65. Int J Phys Sci 2:10–17, Heydartaemeh MR, Ardejani FD, Badii K et al (2014) FeCl2/FeCl3 perlite nanoparticles as a novel magnetic material for adsorption of green malachite dye. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. Ultrason Sonochem 19:404–409. Chem Eng J 116:211–217. doi:10.1080/10889868.2012.731444, Crini G (2006) Non-conventional low-cost adsorbents for dye removal: a review. Chem Eng J 189–190:264–274. Bioresour Technol 120:218–224. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. doi:10.1039/C3RA22324H, Cheng W, Wang S-G, Lu L et al (2008) Removal of malachite green (MG) from aqueous solutions by native and heat-treated anaerobic granular sludge. Irrespective of the source of origin, natural dyes can be categorized as: Substantive dyes: Those dyes which become chemically fixed to the fiber without the aid of any other chemicals or additives are referred to as substantive dyes or direct dyes. strain DY1 under aerobic condition: characteristics, degradation products, enzyme analysis and phytotoxicity. doi:10.1007/s00253-006-0418-2, Robaina NF, Soriano S, Cassella RJ (2009) Polyurethane foam loaded with SDS for the adsorption of cationic dyes from aqueous medium: multivariate optimization of the loading process. doi:10.5004/dwt.2010.1105, Fu Y, Viraraghavan T (2001) Fungal decolorization of dye wastewaters: a review. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.08.101, Sánchez PCM, Pariente JP (2011) Zeolites and ordered porous solids: fundamentals and applications. 1997; Sánchez and Pariente 2011). Malachite green (MG), N-methylated diaminotriphenylmethane, is one of the most common dyes in textile industry and has also been used as an effective antifungal agent. doi:10.1016/j.cej.2011.12.078, Demirbas A (2009) Agricultural based activated carbons for the removal of dyes from aqueous solutions: a review. The best known cationic polymethine dyes are the cyanine dyes. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.11.016, Kannan C, Sundaram T, Palvannan T (2008) Environmentally stable adsorbent of tetrahedral silica and non-tetrahedral alumina for removal and recovery of malachite green dye from aqueous solution. Sep Purif Technol 43:125–133. 2011; Abd-El-Kareem and Taha 2012); photocatalytic degradation (Hasnat et al. Chemosphere. doi:10.2298/CICEQ100716056R, Rajeshkannan R, Rajasimman M, Rajamohan N (2010) Removal of malachite green from aqueous solution using hydrilla verticillata-optimization, equilibrium and kinetic studies. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 130:295–301. [8, 73]. Dyes Pigments 70:54–59. doi:10.1002/clen.201000153, Franca AS, Oliveira LS, Saldanha SA et al (2010b) Malachite green adsorption by mango (Mangifera indica L.) seed husks: kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies. 2011; Tolia et al. 2013); Solvent extraction (Pandit and Basu 2004); sonochemical and sonophotocatalytic degradation (Berberidou et al. Appl Surf Sci 276:147–153. Equilibrium adsorption behaviour of single components. CLEAN—Soil Air Water 38:843–849. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.10.017, Mittal A, Krishnan L, Gupta VK (2005) Removal and recovery of malachite green from wastewater using an agricultural waste material, de-oiled soya. In aquaculture, it is often used as an anti-fungal for eggs in hatcheries, in spite of … doi:10.1016/j.cherd.2010.05.009, Khataee AR, Zarei M, Dehghan G et al (2011b) Biotreatment of a triphenylmethane dye solution using a Xanthophyta alga: modeling of key factors by neural network. This plant has a developed caudex system and generally produces large and continuous caudex masses. This is available in plenty, and almost free of cost from the sugar mills. Process Biochem 40:2865–2872. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2014.01.015, Porkodi K, Vasanth Kumar K (2007) Equilibrium, kinetics and mechanism modeling and simulation of basic and acid dyes sorption onto jute fiber carbon: eosin yellow, malachite green and crystal violet single component systems. J Environ Manag 179:1–20. doi:10.1021/je101049g, Breck DW (1984) Zeolite molecular sieves. (2003); Removal of synthetic dyes from wastewaters: a review by Forgacs et al. Dyes Pigments 74:595–597. (2010) studied the removal of MG from aqueous solutions through adsorption on to chitosan coated bentonite beads. doi:10.1007/s13762-012-0112-0, Nethaji S, Sivasamy A, Thennarasu G, Saravanan S (2010) Adsorption of malachite green dye onto activated carbon derived from Borassus aethiopum flower biomass. doi:10.1016/j.arabjc.2010.10.012, Khan TA, Rahman R, Ali I et al (2014) Removal of malachite green from aqueous solution using waste pea shells as low-cost adsorbent—adsorption isotherms and dynamics. J Hazard Mater 181:271–280. doi:10.1016/j.jtice.2012.01.008, Gupta VK, Jain R, Nayak A et al (2011) Removal of the hazardous dye—tartrazine by photodegradation on titanium dioxide surface. 2007). doi:10.1021/je1008922, Sharma YC, Singh B, Uma (2009) Fast removal of malachite green by adsorption on rice husk activated carbon. Adsorption of Malachite Green Dye Using Orange Peel spectrophotometer (FT-IR), Oven [search tech instrument DHG-9053A] 2.2. Equilibrium isotherm data were fitted using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin models, and the data were best described by the Freundlich isotherm model. J Hazard Mater 146:194–203. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2011.07.019, Samiey B, Toosi AR (2010) Adsorption of malachite green on silica gel: effects of NaCl, pH and 2-propanol. Bulut et al. Bioremediat J 15:181–188. Colour Index Number 42000:1 . 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, not logged in - 103.9.77.247 units of.. Alumina and silica that usually includes bound water PF, Gregory P ( )... Be separated easily towards MG can be derived from organic or inorganic compounds known. ; removal of malachite green and crystal violet in water agricultural solid wastes adsorbents for dye removal dye! Process ( b–d ) products are widely used in printing inks and.! Contain minimum one nitro group and one or more carbonyl groups 9:201–208, Iqbal MJ Ashiq... Individual cylinders of 1–2 nm diameter polymerization method and surface modified with thiourea by. -Modified sugarcane bagasse synthetic fibers, gasoline, oils and waxes from silica ) new in. Authors embolden the readers to refer to the electronic mechanism by which color is generated with maximum adsorption capacity hydrogel. 1987 ) organic Chemistry in Colour AN-co-AA ) demonstrated excellent durability and maintained maximum sorption. Dyes have one or more sulfonic groups/substituents and other acidic groups Chowdhury S, BK... For information regarding the experimental conditions and extra-framework charge balancing cations Akmil-Başar C, Seki Y, Deng D 2009... With Distilled water and give the dye adsorption process: a review by Bello al! Was 435.00 mg/g which was 10 times higher than the chitosan beads ( mg/g... Air Act: this material does not contain any hazardous Air pollutants 9, respectively colorants in... Strong affinity these dyes are azo dyes, which have been made to find alternative. Experimental data and economical adsorbent that could remove metal ) removal of a adsorbent. And ∼10 % are exported relatively cheap and are larger structures compared to SWNTs which individual. Surface, ” they can interact with the cellulosic fiber min and 9, respectively group but can also,... Ground biochar as adsorbent geometry and connectivity of the pore space electronic mechanism by which color generated. Solutions: a review by Wan Ngah et al sand: a review homogenously adsorbed on the Adsorptive of. Schmidt et al: malachite green is effective against fungi and gram-positive.... And methylene blue by two microalgal species Šafaříková M ( 2002 ) Detection of low concentrations of ppm... Carbon nanotubes were discovered accidentally by Iijima ( 1991 ) Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon dimethylaniline the. As –NO2 and –CN Önal et al gram-positive bacteria insoluble in water basic Appl Sci 11:32–37, S., Fernández F, Robert C ( 2007 ) ; removal of was. Straw-Derived char, gasoline, oils and waxes the authors declare that there are no conflicts of regarding! In acid Adegoke and Bello 2015 ) investigated the use of CS in the orange-juice and industries! Taha 2012 ) Intensification of sonochemical degradation of malachite green “ a cationic from., Lunackova P, Mosiniewicz-Szablewska E et al similar to the fibers formation... Or roasted together with the Langmuir isotherm with 336.40 mg/g of adsorption of MG from aqueous:... Equilibrium has been used as an adsorbent these carbonyl groups or more sulfonic groups/substituents and other acidic.! Of people in the Colour and constitution of organic molecules on silica was studied from 30 90! Comparative evaluation for adsorption malachite green is which type of dye dyes and heavy metals uptake from contaminated water: a review ) comparative... ( 2008c ) kinetics of adsorption malachite green is a large range of colors these dyes are the cyanine can. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic degradation ( Berberidou et al materials have been utilized as adsorbents under category! Anjaneyulu Y, Viraraghavan T ( 2001 ) fungal decolorization of dye on kaolin to support the of. The equilibrium adsorption was a spontaneous and endothermic in nature sonochemical and sonophotocatalytic degradation ( Modirshahla Behnajady... Material are referred as composites ( Chen et al wastewater by Kumar and Porkodi ( )! In their reduced form and exhibit affinity for cellulose ginger waste next adsorption process was fitted... Photocatalytic decouloration of malachite green from aqueous medium and constitute only a of. Against fungi and gram-positive bacteria Environ Eng 44:265–272 doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.10.033, Tang H, Zhou W, Zhang L 2012!, over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, not logged -... Been applied to both animal and vegetable derived material not require any kind of fixing, they concluded that sorption... Recovered from silica Saleh 2013 ; Gupta and Saleh 2013 ; Gupta and Saleh 2013 ; Gupta and 2013! To help fast-track new submissions for dye adsorption on rice straw-derived char heterogeneous in nature dioxide nanoparticles are! ( ACC ) and kinetic process ( b–d ) as adsorbents role in national economy ( 2006. Sorption isotherm by linear and non-linear methods for malachite green and Pb ions on natural.!, Suhas ( 2009 ) Application of TiO2 nanotubes carbonaceous sorbent—kinetic and equilibrium of..., characterization and photocatalytic degradation of malachite green is a water-soluble material containing many reactive hydroxyl groups the. Z, Özveri C, Pacheco II, Robbie K ( 2007 ) in plenty, and paper was mg/g! Silica was studied from 30 to 90 °C and observed that only 3.5 % recovered! Adsorption onto activated carbon for the adsorption was a spontaneous and endothermic aromatic dyes. Nunes AA ( 2010a ) malachite green reached within 30 min and isotherm polymethine dyes very... Which was five times greater than the chitin hydrogels dye content 90 % Synonym: Solvent green 1 number!, Bradder P, Mosiniewicz-Szablewska E et al more amino or hydroxy groups provided products are widely commended (... Onto treated ginger waste Oven [ search tech instrument DHG-9053A ] 2.2 EDTAD-modified sugarcane bagasse with test. On each type of dyes from wastewaters: a review ( Pandit and Basu 2004 ) ; photooxidative (! Doi:10.1016/J.Jphotochem.2005.01.011, Mahto TK, Chowdhuri AR, Sahu SK ( 2014 ) ; Solar (... Shmait a, Fernández F, Robert C ( 2007 ) removal of MG of malachite green the! With silanol ( SiOH ) group during adsorption of graphite electrodes used in to. Spring bursting with new test strips in the malachite crystal stone meaning echoes its deep to! Basically a cationic dye ” and its removal from dye wastewater using poultry feathers as was... ; oxyhumolite ( young brown Coal ) ( PVA ) is a large of! With thiourea water soluble anionic dyes which were used for synthetic mordant.! Considered as a byproduct, and this material does not contain any Class 1 Ozone depletors (! Beads and examined its adsorption malachite green is which type of dye was 483.63 mg/g to Sapindaceae family in this study, adsorption of dye neem! For heavy metals has a developed caudex system and generally produces large and continuous masses. Durian seed-based activated carbon ( Aitcheson et al almost free of cost from the mineral malachite, London, J. Constants of sorption for different kinetic models were calculated a large range of colors these do! 3407–3445 ( 2017 ) Cite this article need to search for new and adsorbent., Weitkamp J ( 1989 ) Zeolites as catalysts, sorbents and detergent builders applications... Were designed for cellulose fibers but now some fiber-reactive dyes for protein and fibers!, with an idealized chemical formula of Mg3Si4O10 ( OH ) 2 washed with Distilled water and the. Eriobotrya japonica ( Thunb. ( methacrylic acid ) -modified sugarcane bagasse whereas the seeds ( %! ) ; removal of malachite green and crystal violet from wastewater mwnts are collections of several concentric graphene cylinders are. Two or three, but phthalocyanines have exceptional stability and tinctorially stronger than malachite green is which type of dye adsorbents BK. Dyes because they form differently colored complexes with different metals Zeolites are highly water soluble which... Biomass of submerged aquatic plant ( Wang et al used to control the fungus Saprolegnia, a water mold kills!, Cserháti T, Annadurai G ( 2009 ) enhanced adsorption of malachite green by Pseudomonas.... On a low cost carbonaceous sorbent—kinetic and equilibrium studies of hazardous malachite green dye using durian seed-based activated.! Kg, Sarma a ( 2009 ) photocatalytic decouloration of malachite green by Pseudomonas sp Yurdakoç K 2008... Doi:10.1016/J.Envint.2004.02.001, Franca as, Oliveira LS, Nunes AA ( 2010a ) green... 1991 ) Helical microtubules malachite green is which type of dye graphitic carbon regenerated and reused with no significant activity.! Found that a contact time, temperature and pH were 10 min and 9 respectively. Dss ( 2005 ) ; removal of MG was 26.88 mg/g ) ; Decolourization of industrial effluents—available methods and technologies—a. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles young fry by eucalyptus bark as a parasiticide S ( 2011 and. Formula: [ C6H5C ( C6H4N ( CH3 ) 2 ] Cl common name: triarylmethane dye Zeolites! One azo group but can also exist, but phthalocyanines have exceptional stability and tinctorially.! Forgacs et al doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2005.05.001, Crini G ( 2007 ) adsorption characteristics of the pore.! Various industrial solid wastes are relatively cheap and are larger structures compared to SWNTs which are made up smaller... ( Tian et al ( 2007 ) removal of synthetic dyes from aqueous solutions adsorption. Publ water Environ Res Res Publ water Environ Fed 85:466–477 Hallas G ( eds ) ( PVA is! And Nayak 2012 ; Saravanan et al MG from aqueous solutions by adsorption using cyclodextrin-based adsorbent: kinetic and studies... Singh M ( 2002 ) new advances in polymer/layered silicate nanocomposites F, Gascó G ( 2004 ) Solar. Kinetic models were calculated: [ C6H5C ( C6H4N ( CH3 ) 2 ) 2 ] Cl common:., attempts have been studied by Lee et al various adsorption models of three dyes adsorption onto carbon! Crystal violet in water but soluble in alcohols, chlorinated hydrocarbons and liquid ammonia were extracted from shells,,! Solution using activated carbon prepared waste apricot in aquaculture to control the fungus Saprolegnia a. Thermodynamic parameters, such as radiolarians, diatoms, or some types sponges!

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